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Canoe methods

The birchbark canoes, from Indigenous peoples mostly on lakes or in the eastern part of what’s now called North America:

The rib, plank and canvas canoes, made famous by Chestnut, by Kenny Solway, by Omer Stringer and Beaver, and now produced by Rollin at Northland:

The most recent form of this boat dispenses with the ribs and uses epoxy over the planks for strength and waterproofing:

And the final choice is the radical West coast alternative, which is skin on frame–this video shows a kayak, but a canoe is possible, if really difficult:

Gratuitous bonus: Me paddling a vintage Chestnut in Algonquin Park: